A diet-related inflammatory index was associated with cancer risk in a dose-dependent manner across 44 studies involving 1,082,092 participants. People with the highest diet-related inflammatory score had a 58% increased cancer risk compared to those with the lowest scores.
The diet-related inflammatory index has been shown to be highest with a Western-type diet (high in sugar, fried foods, high-fat dairy products, & refined grains). It has been shown to be associated with higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers.
Inflammation has been associated with many chronic conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and insulin resistance. There also is evidence that chronic inflammation may be associated with depression and may predispose individuals to dementia. Inflammation due to a response to injury, e.g. from cigarette smoking or hypertension, is involved in the steps of atherosclerosis that lead to plaque rupture and thrombosis. The inflammatory microenvironment includes production of cytokines and chemokines that also can lead to tumor initiation, growth, and invasion.